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From PROPHECY to TESTAMENT: The Function of the Old Testament in the New [Hardcover]

By Craig A. Evans (Contributor)
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Item Specifications...

Pages   304
Est. Packaging Dimensions:   Length: 9.34" Width: 6.2" Height: 0.93"
Weight:   1.42 lbs.
Binding  Hardcover
Release Date   Jan 31, 2005
Publisher   Hendrickson Publishers
ISBN  1565637658  
EAN  9781565637658  

Availability  0 units.

Item Description...
The theology of the New Testament is indebted to, and is a reflection of, major Old Testament themes, images, and language, because the New Testament authors wrote in the context of the Old Testament and the rich Jewish tradition of study and interpretation of scripture.

A group of ancient Jewish writers provided the Christian church with its Old Testament Greek text (the Septuagint) and provided Aramaic translations (the Targums) for some of the writers of the New Testament. This group also produced many works that, whether intentionally or not, offered interpretations, expansions, and explanations of difficult or obscure Old Testament passages works that influenced the New Testament authors.

From Prophecy to Testament opens with a basic overview of past work on the development of New Testament theology, and then offers a superb collection of essays exploring the numerous ways in which New Testament writers were formed and informed by the biblical and extrabiblical literature of the Israelite people of the Second-Temple period

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More About Craig A. Evans

Register your artisan biography and upload your photo! Craig A. Evans is a Professor of Biblical Studies and the Director of the Graduate Program in Biblical Studies at Trinity Western University in Langley, British Columbia.

Craig A. Evans currently resides in Kentville. Craig A. Evans has an academic affiliation as follows - Acadia Divinity College, Wolfville, Canada Acadia Divinity College, Ca.

Craig A. Evans has published or released items in the following series...
  1. Acadia Studies in Bible and Theology
  2. Holman Apologetics Commentary on the Bible
  3. Holman Quicksource Guides
  4. IVP Bible Dictionary
  5. Journal for the Study of the New Testament Supplement (Hardcover
  6. Journal for the Study of the Old Testament
  7. JSP Supplements (Paperback)
  8. Library of New Testament Studies
  9. Of Scribes and Sages: Early Jewish Interpretation and Transmissi
  10. Sheffield Reader
  11. Studies in the Dead Sea Scrolls & Related Literature
  12. T & T Clark Academic Paperbacks
  13. Word Biblical Commentary

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An Essential Collection of Essays on the Function of the OT in the New  Sep 19, 2005
The use of the Old Testament in the New is a premier issue at the forefront of New Testament studies. This collection of essays pertains to how OT prophecy functioned within the NT. Craig A. Evans' indispensable introduction for beginning students surveyed such issues as what constituted OT scripture, versions of Scripture, Jewish interpretative approaches, and cognate literatures. Bruce Chilton maintained that the NT writers might have been influenced by some targumic understandings of the OT. Evan's lengthy essay identified sixteen terms or phrases included in the Targum Psalms that carry a potential influence on certain NT passages. Rikk E. Watts contributed an outstanding essay examining Isa. 7:14-17 to indicate how "Immanuel" functioned in Matthew's infancy narrative. Robert F. Shedinger's essay contended that the NT Greek text could be used as a "significant source of text-critical evidence relating to the HB" (p. 114). Simon J. Gathercole's essay argued against the New Perspective on Paul by comparing Jewish writings to a number of NT passages indicating a legalistic understanding of Lev. 18:5b within Judaism. Michael Labahn's, "The Significance of Signs in Luke 7:22-23 in Light of Isaiah 61 and the Messianic Apocalypse," posited that Q contains eschatological sayings. In "`No One Has ever Seen God': Revisionary Criticism in the Fourth Gospel," A. J. Droge posited that the FG is a blatant criticism and radical revision of the OT Scriptures. Veteran scholar, James C. VanderKam, suggested that story of Pentecost deliberately drew upon traditions concerning the Festival of Weeks. James L. Kugel asserted that the misquotations of the HB in Stephen's speech stemmed from Jewish exegetical concerns. Brigitte Kahl presented a feminist interpretation of Paul's allegory about the free and slave women in Galatians. Gary A. Anderdson intended to elucidate 1 Tim. 2:9-15 by examining the question of Eve's guilt in the pseudepigraphal Life of Adam and Eve. James A. Sanders concluded this book with some comments on the nature of the Torah and interpretation during the Second Temple period.

A number of the essays yielded potential insights with implications for exegesis. For example, concerning Isa. 6:9-10 in Mk. 4:11-12 Chilton showed that according to the Targum Isaiah the Greek hina clause in the Aramaic is read as "so that" rather than "in order that." Therefore, If Jesus' followed the targumic form his use of parables was not to cause misunderstanding, but instead misunderstanding resulted from the hearer's own hard heart (p.26). Evan's, likewise, offered an interesting insight into the quotation of Ps. 91:11-12 in Matt. 4:6. By juxtaposing the MT and Targum of Ps. 91:5-6, 9-10 he observed how the Aramaic reflects an interest in angels and demons during the Second Temple period by adding the phrases "terror of demons," "arrow of the angel of death," "band of demons," and "no plague or demon." The fact that Satan quotes this Psalm is significant, but instead of applying this observation exegetically, Evans proceeded to cite several sources supporting a tradition portraying Solomon as an exorcist. While interesting, these traditions and magical incantation are seemingly irrelevant to Matt. 4:6.
Rikk E. Watts essay on Isa. 7:14 in Matt. 1:23 is an exemplar model for the value of reading an OT quotation in its context when interpreting its presence in the New. He argued that Matthew's citation of Isa. 7:14 is not a proof text, but rather it constitutes a warning to Israel if it does not respond to Jesus in faith. The implication is that the names "Jesus" and "Immanuel" are therefore programmatic for the gospel's larger literary and theological schema (p. 93). He demonstrated a contextual link between Isaiah 1-9 and the entire book of Matthew, of which Isa. 7:14 is used to denote judgment for unbelieving Israel and salvation for the faithful remnant.
Several essays served as excellent examples of how Jewish exegesis and extra-biblical parallels can significantly enhance NT interpretation. Gathercole convincingly demonstrated how Lev. 18:5b was viewed in Second Temple literature in terms of a "works righteousness" view of salvation. He also included references overlooked or ignored by Sanders and Dunn that contradict their hypotheses concerning covenantal nomism. Also, both VanderKam and Kugel illuminated how Jewish exegetical techniques influence and underlie the quotations and allusions to OT texts in Acts.

On the other hand, some essays seem arguably misplaced in this volume. If the book's purpose is to explore the function of the OT in the NT as it relates to the fulfillment of prophecy, then a few essays fall short. For example, Shedinger's contention that a variant reading of "king" instead of "ruler" in both the Hebrew and Greek text should be adopted for Micah 5:1 and Matt. 2:6 fails to reveal the function of the OT in the NT. One may also question his use of mid-to-late second century Greek writings as a text-critical source for the original Hebrew. Moreover, Labahn's essay could more appropriately be renamed by replacing Lk. 7:22-23 with Q 7:18-23. Out of twenty-two pages, only three of them explicitly pertain to an actual OT text (pp. 150-52). Apparently he is more concerned with the function of Q in Luke rather than the function of the OT.

Overall, this book is a valuable resource for anyone interested in the use of the OT in the New. The beginning student may struggle over some of the concepts, arguments, and use of Hebrew and Aramaic. This work is not the best introductory reference to this subject because it presupposes some basic knowledge in this field. Also it excludes many portions of the NT (i.e. large sections of the gospels, the general epistles, and Revelation). Aside from the essays on the use of the Targums, nothing particularly new or innovative is advanced. However, all the essays are well researched, informative, and helpful to anyone studying a NT quotation of the OT.

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